n the United States wer▓e fai


merican Jamar Clark was shot ▓dead by white police officers. ▓The fatal shooting occurred when two ▓police officers were trying

to arrest him. Witnesses said that Clark was handcuffed when he was s▓hot in the head. The civil rights organization "Bl▓ack Lives Matter" organized protests ▓in multiple cities across the country. In a Facebook post, Black Lives Matter a▓ctivists noted "the era of white supremaci▓st terrorism against people of color across the U.S.," (www.theatlantic▓.com, November 18, 2015; www.mprnews.org, November 20, 2015; www.huffingtonpost.com, November 24, 2015) On April 12, 2015, as 25-year-old African-American Freddie Gray▓ was being arrested, police handcuffed him a▓nd had knees on his back and his h

rly good or very g

  • ood, do▓wn from a high of 77 percent in January 2
  • 009 (blogs.wsj.com, December ▓16, 2015). A survey r
  • eleased in November 2015 by▓ the Public Religio
  • n Research Institute in t▓he United States showed t
  • hat 35 percent of Americans believed racial te

nsions were ▓

ea▓d. Gray was dragged and thrown into the back of a police van with his face down. Gray requested medical attention whil▓e being transported in the van but the request was denied. Gray lapsed into ▓

Juvin Nile - a major concern in

a coma following the journey on April 12 and died a week later in a hospital. ▓He died of a severe spinal cord injury. The incident sparked large-scale protests in Baltimore. The protests turne

Paul - their own com


rg, Nove▓

mber 17, 2015). Fi


d violent on April 27, and Ma▓ryland Gov. Larry Hogan declared a state of emerg▓ency and activated the National Guard.▓ It was

the second time in six months that a state called out the National Guard to enforce order after a whit▓e police officer killed a black teenager▓, Michael Brown, in Ferguson in 2014. The New York Times said that Gray had become the nation's latest symbol of police brutality in an Apri▓l 28 story. (edition.cnn.com, April 29, 2015;▓ www.bbc.com, May 5, 2015; baltimore.cbslocal.com, April 27, 2015; www.nytimes.com, April 27 a▓nd 28, 2015) According to The Washington Post website, police fatally shot 965 people in 2015 as of December 24, 2015, including 36 unarmed African-Americans (www.washingt

onpost.co▓m, December 24, 2015). The CBS News-New York Times poll released▓ on May 4, 2015 showed that 79 p▓ercent of African-Americans be▓lieved police were more likely to use de▓adly force against a black person than against a white person, and black respondents were more likely than white respondents to believe their local police made them feel anxious rath▓er than safe (newyork.cbslocal.com, May 4, 2015). According to a poll released by the National Bar

gures released

Association in the United S▓tates, 88 percent of blacks believed black ▓people were treated unfairly by pol▓ice, compared with 59 percent of w▓hites who shared that view (www.usatoday.com, September 9, 2015).Racial discrimination in t▓he criminal justice system w

as sever▓e. A Gallup survey in 2015 showe▓d that 68 percent of African-Americans believed the American criminal justice system was racially biased, while 37 percent of whites said th

Paul - by Pew Researc

h Center

a big prob

lem in the

U.S. soci

ety▓; 60


e same (www.usatoday.com, June 18, 2015). According to a survey released by the Public Religion Research Institute, 51 p▓ercent of Americans disagreed that blacks and other minorities received equal treatment as whites in the cri

minal justice system, and 78 percent of black Americans disagreed that blacks and other minorities received equal treatment to whites in the criminal just▓ice system (publicreligion.org, May 7, 2015). Prosecutors intentionally struck ▓black people from juries in trials of black defend▓ants. In the South, the practice for prosecutors▓ to strike jurors based on race remained common (w▓ww.newyorker.com, June 5, 2015).Race-r▓elated hate crimes occurred o

ccasionally▓. Craig Stephen Hicks, 46, shot dead three Musli▓m students near the University of North Carolina on February 10, 2015. Hicks had frequentl▓y posted messages critical of various religions on the Internet (indianexpress.com, Ju▓ne 5, 2015). On June 17, 2015, Dylann Roof, a 21-year-old white man, opened fi▓re and killed nine people, including a pastor, at an African-American churc▓

percent Americ

ans said the country nee

h in Charleston in South Carolina. According to witnesses, Roof told the victims, "You ▓r

ded to continue maki

ape our women and you're taking over our country,▓ and you have to go (www.

ng changes to achi

cbsnews.com, June 17, 2015; www.bbc.com, June 19, 2015)."Anti-Muslim remarks cau

eve racial equalit

sed a gr▓eat clamor. The Guardian reported on November 19, 20

y, up 14 per

15 that a Republican presidential candidate made public comments, saying that he would consider warrantless searches of Muslims and increased surveillance of mosques, and that he would not rule out tracking Muslim ▓Americans in a database or giving them 

Juvin Nile - centa▓ge points f
rom a year

ago (www.people-pre

"a special form of identification that noted their▓ religion (www.theguardian.com, November 19, 2015)." On December 7, the presidential candidate made a statement▓ calling for "a total and co

ss.org, ▓August 5, 2015).Ca

illed by polic

e occurr▓ed rep

eatedly. On No
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vember 1 020-060-4440
5, 2015, the 24-year-old
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